I wrote this information for the group some time ago, and since we have had such a nice growth in membership, I thought I would the repeat the information again. Not reading does not give you an excuse not to know!
Today I'm introducing the Elements And Principles of Design. Some of you are on top of the game and are ready know how to use the Elements with the Principles, but bare with me. I may show you some thing that you do not know.
This tutorial is meant for Novice and Beginning Photomanipulators, but, of course, it's here to give information that even the Intermediate and Advance deviant to learn something that they did not know.
Elements and Principles of Design
Question: What is meant by the Elements and Principles of Design
are the parts of a design, and the Principles
are ways to use the parts..
All art is comprised of the Elements
being arranged following the rules set by the Principles
. Knowing the Elements
can help you create more dynamic images. You must know and understand the rules that the Principles
are based on before you can break away from them.
I will use the deviation, "Doll In The Attic"
to point out the Elements
is light reflected off of objects. The three characteristics of Color are Hue, Value and Intensity
is needed to see color,
Grey tones are a result of less light on an object. This is why black is the absence of all light.
that are opposite from one another on the Color Wheel
are called Complementary Colors
, such as blue and orange, yellow and violet, and green and red.
In this deviation there is a touch of Complementary Colors.
. The room can be categorized as having the same Tints and Shades
of the same color, but the tea pot has traces of blue. Blue and Orange are complementary colors. Line
is a stroke from one point to another. Lines are straight, curved, or wavy. They can be broken or continuous. They can go in a horizontal, diagonal or versicle direction. They can be long, short, thick or thin.
There are several lines in this deviation.There are strong lines around the hat, horizontal white on the toy house, in front, in front of the the seamstress mannequin, etc,.
is a line that has been closed. There are Geometric Shapes
, Abstract Shapes
, and Organic Shapes
can be made with thick or thin outlines, or have color within the outline, but they are always flat.
Every thing in the deviation has closed lines that indicates their shape. Since we are not actually shapes, the best example show up in the
wall paper. Form
is a 3-Dimensional Shape
have length, width and depth. Boxes, spheres, and cylinders are examples of Forms
Simply put, we are 3-Dimensional forms. Most things around us are also forms, and the same goes with in the example deviation. The hat, the mannequins, the cups, the draperies, and of course the, "doll", etc., are 3-Dimensional forms
. In addition, Space
is the area between and around objects. The Space
around objects are called Negative Space
while the object itself is taking up Positive Space
also refers to the illusion of Depth
in 2-Dimensional art.
The way to get Space and Depth
on a 2-imensionsl surface is simple if you follow certain rules:
1. By Overlapping. When objects overlap, the first object is "seen" by us as being the closest.
- 2. By using Atmospheric Perspective: Objects in the nearest foreground are always the largest, clearest, and has the most detail. As objects move back into the furthest background, they become smaller, fuzzier, and has less detail.
- 3. By using Linear Perspective: Using the horizon line as the focal point, invisible parallel lines move towards the horizon appearing to go from wide to narrow. Large objects appear smaller as they move towards the horizon line, and larger as they go away. Objects above the horizon line appear smaller and lower as they move "towards the horizon. Often times, the "horizon" is not far away, like in a room, but the rules are still in affect.3. By using Linear Perspective: Using the horizon line as the focal point, invisible parallel lines move towards the horizon appearing to go from wide to narrow. Large objects appear smaller as they move towards the horizon line, and larger as they go away. Objects above the horizon line appear smaller and lower as they move "towards the horizon. Often times, the "horizon" is not far away, like in a room, but the rules are still in affect.
is how a surface feels when touched, or how it looks like it should feel if it's touched. Smooth, rough, soft, hard, bumpy
are all examples of Textures.
Both of the deviations above have the "look" of a specific texture.
Now we're ready for the for Principles..
Using the "In Grandma's Closet" deviation, and the others that are included in the blog, see if you can identify the Principles and which Elements are being used.
is a path through a design that is created with one or more of the Elements
. The viewer eyes will catch this Element
and move in the direction that it/they take.
is repeating an Element
at least one time.
happens when the Repetition
of one or more Elements
are done exactly the same over and over.
deals with the relationship between parts of a design and how they are related. For example, when drawing the human figure, Proportion
can refer to the size of the head compared to the rest of the body.
is created when one or more Elements
of design are used repeatedly through the design to create a feeling of organized movement.
is doing something different to hold the viewer's attention.
is the complication of the Principles
to create the feeling of harmony between all parts of the design. It also gives a sense of "togetherness".
In this last section I want to cover how the Principles
are used together to create Unity
in the photomanipulation below.
The deviation has a nice blend of Symmetrical
over the little and the objects are as bright as she is. Therefore that area is the Emphasis,
In addition, the yellow bear
is different, so the eye has a tendency to catch it as it goes about the room..
LIttle touched of red here and there, s well as the red of the spools of yarn help create Movement
because the eye follows them towards the back of the image.
of the Colors
help maintain the togetherness feeling of the image.
There is Pattern
in the screen. .
Once again, there is a touch of complementary color. The blue painting, and dark color yarn greats a bit of Variety
Thank you for reading and I hope you learned something new today.